There are plenty of low-effort things you can do to ensure safe riding and a long life for your machine. Check your Owner’s Manual for the components that need scheduled service (oil/oil filter changes, valve adjustments, fuel injection system cleans, etc.), and if you’re the DIY type, we’d recommend buying a service manual for your model. Otherwise, consider the following as both a pre- and post-ride checklist:
 

Keep your bike clean.

Tires. Check for recommended air pressure (see your Owner’s Manual), and inspect for excessive wear or any other damage.

Brakes and clutch. Check for smooth operation and proper adjustment/positioning.

Cables and controls. Make sure the throttle and all control cables (brakes, clutch, engine stop, lights) operate smoothly.

Lighting. Make sure your brake, head- and taillights, and turn indicators are all in working order.

Fuel and oil. Make sure your gas is topped off and your oil is filled to the recommended level (see your Owner’s Manual).

Chain. Keep your chain properly tensioned, clean and lubricated as recommended by your Owner’s Manual.

Sidestand/Centerstand. Make sure your bike’s sidestand (and centerstand if your bike has one) operate freely and with no binding, and make sure their springs hold them fully up when not in use.

 
*Source materials for all maintenance tips found in this section: www.msf-usa.org, MSF Riding Tips: You and Your Motorcycle manual, and Honda OwnerLink.